University-level introductory programming courses, CS0 (non-majors) and CS1 (majors), often teach an industry language, such as Java, C++, and Python. However, such languages were designed for professionals, not learners. Some CS0 courses teach a graphical programming language, such as Scratch, Snap, and Alice. However, many instructors want a more serious feel for college students that leads more directly into an industry language. In late 2017, we designed Coral, an ultra-simple language for learning to program that has both textual code and a graphical flowchart view. Concurrently, Coral's educational simulator was designed hand-in-hand with the language. Coral was designed specifically for learning core programming concepts: input/output, variables, assignments, expressions, branches, loops, functions, and arrays. Coral is intended as a step in learning; once Coral is learned, students might transition to an industry language. This paper describes Coral, including the design philosophy and pedagogical considerations. This paper also includes data on student usage and perspectives of Coral during the Summer and Fall 2018.
Alex Edgcomb is Sr. Software Engineer at zyBooks, a startup spun-off from UC Riverside and acquired by Wiley. zyBooks develops interactive, web-native learning materials for STEM courses. Alex actively studies and publishes the efficacy of web-native learning materials on student outcomes.
Frank Vahid is a Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the Univ. of California, Riverside. His research interests include embedded systems design, and engineering education. He is a co-founder of zyBooks.com.
Roman Lysecky is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona. He received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California, Riverside in 2005. His research interests include embedded systems, runtime optimization, non-intrusive system observation methods, data-adaptable systems, and embedded system security. He has recently coauthored multiple textbooks, published by zyBooks, that utilize a web-native, interactive, and animated approach, which has shown notable increases in student learning and course grades.
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